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For some philosophers such as Plotinus, horoscopic astrology was absurd for reasons such that the planets could never bear ill will toward human beings whose souls were exalted above the cosmos. For others, such as the early Church Fathers, ethical implications of astrological fatalism were the main point of contention, as it was contrary to the emerging Christian doctrine of free will.

The Gnostics, who for the most part believed the cosmos is the product of an evil and enslaving creator, thought of the planets as participants in this material entrapment. Prominent Neoplatonists such as Porphyry, Iamblichus, and Proclus found some aspects of astrology compatible with their versions of Neoplatonic philosophy. The cultural importance of astrology is attested to by the strong reactions to and involvement with astrology by various philosophers in late antiquity.

The adaptability of astrology to various philosophical schools as well as the borrowing on the part of astrologers from diverse philosophies provides dynamic examples of the rich 'electicism' or 'syncretism' that characterized the Hellenistic world. Table of Contents Clicking on the links below will take you to those parts of this article 1. Introduction a. Babylonian Astrology in the Hellenized World b. Hellenistic Theorization and Systemization of Astrology 2.

Early Greek Thinking. Fate, Fortune, Chance, Necessity b. Greek Medicine c. Plato and Divination d. Ages, Cycles, and Rational Heavens 3. Astral Piety in Plato's Academy b. Stoic Cosmic Determinism i. Fate and Necessity ii. Stoic-Babylonian Eternal Recurrence iii. Divination and Cosmic Sympathy iv. Middle Platonic and Neopythagorean Developments i. Ocellus Lucanus ii. Timaeus Locrus iii. Thrasyllus iv. Plutarch 4. The Astrologers a. Earliest Fragments and Texts c. Manilius d.

Claudius Ptolemy of Alexandria e. Vettius Valens 5. The Skeptics a. The New Academy Carneades b. Sextus Empiricus 6. Hermetic and Gnostic Astrological Theories 7. Neoplatonism and Astrology a. Plotinus b. Porphyry c. Iamblichus d. Firmicus Maternus e. Hierocles f. Back to Table of Contents a. Babylonian Astrology in the Hellenized World Astrology, loosely defined as a method of correspondences between celestial events and activity in the human realm, has played a role in nearly every civilization. Its role in the lateHellenistic era is of special concern, particularly due to its complex interaction with Greek philosophy, as well as its claims on the life of an individual.

A horoscopic chart also 'birth chart', 'natal chart', or 'horoscope' is a list of planetary positions against a backdrop of zodiac signs, divided into regions of the sky with reference to the rising and setting stars on the horizon on the basis of one's exact time and place of birth. Such charts form the basis of 'natal astrology' or 'genethlialogy', which started in Babylon but was later developed in Hellenized Greek speaking regions.

The earliest surviving horoscopic chart pertaining to an individual is dated B. Babylonian astrology flourished from the seventh century to the Seleucid era late fourth century. However, astral religion and divination based on star omens have a much longer history in Mesopotamia. Stars were considered to be representations of gods whose favors could be courted through prayers, magical incantations and amulets.

The triad of Anu, Enlil, and Ea corresponded not with individual stars or planets but to three bands of constellations. Hellenistic astrology. Given the small available sample of Late Babylonian horoscopic tablets containing planetary placements and laconic predictions around 28 extant , it is very difficult to come to solid conclusions about the theoretical ground for the practice of the earliest horoscopic astrologers. The case will be different in the Hellenistic culture in which theoretical grounding was important for the development of the practice, and in which there is more extensive textual evidence.

Given the dynamic tension resulting from Greek philosophy meeting Egyptian, Babylonian, Persian and Jewish religions and ideologies, and the 'syncretism' of cross-cultural influences, the Hellenistic era provided fruitful soil for the cultivation of what began primarily as a Mesopotamian system of celestial omens. Before Alexander's conquest, the practice of astronomy and astrology in Babylon flourished but was not yet of much interest to the Greek thinkers.

Plato mentions those who seek celestial portents in the Timaeus 40c-d , while the student of Plato who authored the Epinomis paved the way for application of astronomical studies to astral piety. As the intellectual center in Egypt, Alexandria is a likely location for major developments in Hellenistic astrology. A portion of what Garth Fowden in Egyptian Hermes classified as "technical Hermetica," material typically earlier than the "philosophical Hermetica," represents a part of the early Hellenistic astrological corpus.

Surviving Greek astrological writings, catalogued over a period of fifty years in a work called the Catalogus Codicum Astrologorum Graecorum CCAG , reveal that for the sake of credibility, many of the Hellenistic astrologers attributed the earliest astrological works to historical or mythologized figures such as the pharaoh Nechepso, an Egyptian priest associated with Petosiris.

Hermes is a legendary figure credited with the invention of astrology. Some fragments attributed to Hermes survive while some of the 5. Asclepius, Anubio, Zoroaster, Abraham, Pythagoras, and Orpheus are additional figures having astrological works penned in their names. The rivalry between the Seleucid and Ptolemaic kingdoms may be reflected in the astrologers' varying attributions of the origins of astrology to Egyptians or Babylonians called the Chaldaeans.

Various astrological techniques and tables are either attributed to Egyptians or Chaldaeans, but by late antiquity, the source for specific techniques and approaches were often wrongly attributed. By the second century B. Back to Table of Contents b. Hellenistic Theorization and Systemization of Astrology Hellenistic astrology displays the influence of a variety of philosophical sources. However, given the divergent and ever multiplying streams of thought in the Hellenized world, practical astrology did not necessarily conform to one particular philosophical model offered by the major philosophical schools.

However, as outlined below, the Neopythagoreans, Platonists and Stoics provided the foundational influence on the development of the art. After a system or systems of Hellenistic astrology quickly developed, the later practitioners and writers did not follow any one philosophical influence as a whole. In fact, the surviving instructional texts only scantily betray the philosophical 6. Vettius Valens, whose Anthologiarum is one of the most valuable sources for historians of this subject, indicates Stoic leanings. The astrologer, astronomer, and geographer whose work greatly influenced later development of astrology, Claudius Ptolemy fl.

The later Platonic Academy had its fair share of astrological interest head of the academy in the first century C. Neoplatonists Porphyry, Iamblichus and Proclus all practiced or accepted some form of astrology conforming to their unique contributions to Neoplatonism. It is difficult to imagine that the practice of astrology would have been divorced from philosophy by philosophers who were also astrologers.

The idea of astrology, as a systematic account of fate, had a pervasive impact on the influential thinkers of the time who helped to shape the theoretical and cosmological understanding of the practice. Thinkers in the skeptical Academy and Pyrrhonic schools sought to attack the theoretical underpinnings of the practice of astrology, using a variety of arguments centering around freedom, the ontological status of the stars and planets, and the logical or practical limitations of astrological claims. We now turn to the philosophies and philosophical schools of the Hellenic and Hellenized world that made the spread and acceptance of Babylonian astrology possible.

Fate, Fortune, Chance, Necessity The role of Fate was often interchangeable with that of the gods in early Greek thinking. Fate implied foreknowledge, which was divine and sometimes dispensed by the gods. The intervention of the gods in human affairs also presented the possibility of two paths of fate, based on a moral choice.

Hellenistic Astrology

A decision that pleased or displeased the gods such as the choice Odysseus must make regarding the Oxen of the Sun Odyssey, Book XII could set one off on a road of inexorable circumstances to follow. For the pre-Socratic philosophers, personified powers - such as Moira Fate or Destiny Anank Necessity , Nemesis, Heimarmen Fate , Sumphora Chance and Tukh Fortune or Chance took on both metaphysical significances and personifications that blurred any distinction between the theological and the ontological.

In thinkers such as Anaximander, Moira and Tukh play a part in cosmology that exceeds and is possibly even prior to the gods. While the Olympian gods may be given foresight into the workings of Moira, they were often left without the power to transgress this transcendental dispensation of justice. Nature and the gods were both encompassed by Moira. At this time in Greek thinking, Fate and Fortune, and Zeus as its capricious dispenser, fell outside the pale of human understanding, for leading a virtuous life was no insurance of protection from material ruin.

This sense of futility resulted in the pessimism of Ionian thinkers such as Mimnermus and Semonides. The attitude toward Moira and Tukh by Archilochus is wholly pessimistic, for Moira and Tukh were the sole dispensers of good and evil, with no possibility of mediation. We see the emergence of the question of the role of human responsibility in justice and injustice in early Greek thinking i. Theognis, however, offers a proto-Stoic forebearance of Fate and triumph of human character, while he expresses the frustration of apparent injustice in the dispensation of good to the wicked and bad to the innocent.

Democritus reacted to skepticism based on the whims of Chance by favoring a causal determinism ruled by necessity anank. Attribution of events to Chance, he claimed, was an excuse for one's lack of vigilance of the chain of causality Fr. While not claiming such a thing as absolute chance, Democritus retained chance to indicate an obscure cause or causes. We find in pre-Socratic thinking a stage set for the overcoming of the limitations of knowledge about the laws of the cosmos, not simply on a universal scale, but on the level of individual fortune as well.

Hellenistic astrologers, in part, attempted to provide a complex astral logic to explain the apparent injustices of Fate. They attempted to fill this gap of knowledge and turn Chance and Fate into a predictable science for the initiated. Greek Medicine The development of Greek medical theory brought about a distinction between a basic 'human nature' koin phusis and an 'individual nature' idi phusis. Greek medicine was motivated by the idea that nature has a unity and lawfulness.

In the manner of Democritian Atomism, even Tukh is causal, but not necessarily predictable. A Hippocratean would classify an individual's psychophysical nature into one of four types based on the qualities of hot, cold, moist, and dry. Astrologers borrowed and elaborated upon the psychology and character typology found in early medical theory cf. Astronomica, 2. In turn, astrology in the Hellenistic era was to in turn inform medical theory with 1 zodiacal and planetary melothesia the association of astral phenomenon at birth with physical type , 2 iatromathematics which included consideration of auspicious and inauspicious times , 3 sympathies and antipathies between healing plants and celestial bodies, and 4 prognostication of the course of an illness, of life expectancy or recovery, based on the moment a person fell ill.

Melothesia and iatromathematics are found in the works of astrologers Manilius, Teucer Teukros of Babylon, Ptolemy, and Firmicus Maternus, as well as a variety of anonymous and pseudepigraphal works. Serapion, CCAG, 1. Galen's own position on astrology was nuanced, for he rejected some aspects of astrological doctrine as it had been applied to medicine particularly the Pythagorean numerology used in critical days, and the association of thirty-six healing plants with the Egyptian decans , while he supported other astrological considerations such as the Moon phases and relationship to planets for prognosis.

In On the Critical Days Galen claimed an empirical basis for his selective acceptance, favoring astronomical accuracy with fractional measures over the Pythagorean doctrines in astrology such as seven days per quarter cycle of the Moon. A passage in On the Natural Faculties 1. The context of the passage reveals that his theoretical acceptance of astrology is due to his Vitalist view of Nature that the natural world is a living organism as opposed to the Atomistic view of Nature that all things are composed of inanimate atoms.

Nature, for Galen drawing upon the Vitalist position of Hippocrates possesses faculties of attraction and assimilation of that which is appropriate e. Nature also provides the soul Omens and astrology are signs of Nature's providence and artistry of the principles of assimilation and expulsion. The Atomist Epicurean school rejected astrology and divination by dreams and omens because they believed there is no causality and purpose in Nature, so there is no means of producing these 'signs' or correspondences and no means of prediction by way of them.

Back to Table of Contents c. Plato and Divination Babylonian astrology was not wholly unknown to the Greeks prior to Alexander's campaign. Plato, for instance, demonstrates an awareness of divination by the stars in the Timaeus dialogue, in which the protagonist criticizes divination by the stars without the means of astronomical calculation logizethai and a model mimmaton of the heavens: To describe the dancing movements of these gods, their juxtapositions and the back-circlings and advances of their circular courses on themselves; to tell which of the gods come into line with one another at their conjunctions and how many of them are in opposition, and in what order and at which times they pass in front of or behind one another, so that some are occluded from our view to reappear once again, thereby bring terrors and portents of things to come to those who cannot reason to tell all this without the use of visible models would be labor spend in vain.

Zeyl translation, emphasis mine. Each astronomical consideration listed in this passage, the conjunctions and oppositions, the occlusion or heliacal settings of planets and stars, the retrogradation are basic considerations in Babylonian and subsequently Greek astronomy. This It may also be taken as evidence that Plato is at least aware of the Babylonian practice of omenic astrology or the horoscopy that emerged in the fifth century B.

Also in the Timaeus, Plato mentions the "young gods" whose job it is to steer souls. The identity of these gods would become a problem in later Platonism, but they are established, at least by the first century as planetary god Philo, De opificio mundi, As this dialogue was treated with great importance in Platonism during the formative period of Hellenistic astrology, this passage could have been used by those looking for philosophical justification for the practice.

Plato further expresses in the Laws 7. He points out that the name planetos from 'to wander' is a misnomer, for the Sun, Moon and planets display a cyclical regularity in their course that can be more accurately understood by astronomical research. We can suspect, in this regard, the influence of contemporary astronomers and students in the academy such as Eudoxus. Astral piety, however, is to be contrasted with 'astrology' proper that originated with the attempt to apply reason, order, and predictability to phenomena that had been previously considered to be merely astral omens.

Plato held in low regard the divinatory arts that are not prophetic, i. He expressed an attitude of ambiguity toward divination revealed in the double-edged characterization of Theuth cf. Phaedo, a , the inventor of number, calculation, geometry, astronomy, games and writing. Just as writing results in a soul's forgetfulness through the mediation of symbols, semiotic or sign-based prediction, as astrology was often considered, is inferior to directly inspired prophecy Phaedo, c. Back to Table of Contents d.

Empedocles taught of a natural cycle of the interplay of Love and Strife: Love and harmony dominated one Age, then Strife in the next Age. Plato also expresses world ages, particularly in the Statesman or Politicus dd. Throughout the myths in this dialogue and others, he introduced the notion of a 'cosmos' or a rational order and ontological hierarchy of the spheres of heavenly beings, elements, daimons, and earthly inhabitants.

The cosmologies in Plato's dialogues marked the emergence of a rational cosmic order in place of earlier cosmogonies. His Timaeus dialogue, with its detailed story of the creation of the world, was to become, perhaps the most influential book along with the Septuagint in the late Hellenistic era. Babylonian astronomical cycles would, soon after Plato, fuse with Greek cosmologies. In the Myth of Er in the Republic, Plato describes the cosmos as held together by the Spindle of Necessity, such that the spheres of the fixed stars and the planets are held together by an axis of a spindle.

Sirens sing to move the spheres or whorls while the Three Moirai participate in turning the wheel. Each whorl has its own speed, with the sphere of the fixed stars moving the fastest and in the direction opposite those of the planets. In the Phaedrus cc dialogue, he further illustrates the Law of Destiny that governs souls who accompany the procession of the gods in a heavenly circuit for a period of years.

If the souls remember the Good those of the philosophers they will regain lost wings of immortality in three circuits or years. Otherwise they fall to the earth and continue a cycle of rebirths for 10, years.

Immortal souls dwell in the rim of the heavens among the stars. This leads to another significant development introduced by Plato, one that would become critical for the Hellenistic spread Plato gives the planets and stars a divine ontological status absent in the writings of the pre-Socratics, many of whom took the planets and stars to be material bodies of one substance or another. In the Laws Secondly, the motion of the stars and other heavenly bodies are under the systematic governance of Nous.

That the circuits of the planets and stars have an ordered regularity or rationality, and that they are always in motion, indicates that they are immortal and ensouled cf. Phaedrus, c. While leaving open the question of whether the Sun, Moon and planets create their own physical bodies or inhabit them as vehicles, Plato includes in the Athenian's argument that celestial beings are in fact gods, and unlike the thought of the Atomists are engaged in the affairs of human beings Laws, PreSocratic philosophers such as Anaxagoras who believed that mind Nous governs the cosmos, failed in their cosmological account by not also recognizing the priority of soul over body Laws, The conception of mind moving soulless bodies, noted the Athenian, led to common accusations that studying astronomy promotes impiety.

As Babylonian astronomical cycles met with a rational and ensouled Greek cosmos, the basis for both Stoic eternal recurrence and technical Hellenistic astrology was formed. Back to Table of Contents 3. Astral Piety in Plato's Early Academy The Platonic dialogue Epinomis, most likely written by Phillip of Opus, demonstrates a transformation of the view of the heaven that soon paved the 'western way' for astrology.

This dialogue shows the transformation of the planets into visible representations of the Olympian gods, just as the Babylonian planets were images of their pantheon. The older names of the planets encountered in Homer and Hesiod and in Plato's Republic designated their appearance rather than divine personification.

Jupiter was shining Phaithon , Mercury was twinkling Stilbn , Mars was fiery Pureos and Venus was the bright morning star and evening star Phosphoros and Vesperos. In the Epinomis, the planets are given proper names for Greek gods, though the author leaves open the question of whether the celestial beings are the gods themselves or likenesses fashioned by the gods theous autous tauta humnteon orthotata, gar theous eikonas hs agalmata hupolabein gegonenai, then autn ergasamenon, e.

The new names of planets as Greek gods corresponded loosely with the astral deities of Babylonian astrology, such as the identification of ruling Olympian, Zeus, with the planet Jupiter, replacing the principle Babylonian god Marduk. While Plato himself Does the care of the gods for "all things great and small" epimeloumenoi pantn, smikrn kai meizonn, d mean that it is through their activities or motions they control, guide or occasionally intervene in human matters?

While we do not yet see a clear distinction between astral piety and practical astrology, later texts on mystery cults, Gnosticism, Hermeticism, and magic demonstrate that someone who either worships stars, or is concerned with their ontological status, need not be technically proficient in astronomy. Nor must they believe that life is fated by astrally determined necessity. Likewise, the technical Hellenistic astrologers who calculated birth charts and made predictions did not necessarily practice rituals in reverence to planetary gods. While there is no clear evidence for a unified school in which technical astrologers were indoctrinated into both technique and theory of the craft, the fact that the Hellenistic techniques barring the basic foundation of Babylonian astrology had developed in a variety of conflicting ways speaks to the possibility of several schools of thought in theory, practice, and perhaps geographic distance.

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As each astrologer contributed their own techniques or variations on techniques, the technical material quickly multiplied, and students of astrology had many authoritative writers to follow. The most likely scenario is that the practicing astrologers possessed a variety of viewpoints about the life and 'influence' of the planets and stars, based on available cosmological views in religion and philosophy. While borrowing freely from Stoic, Pythagorean and Platonic thought, the astrologers who would soon emerge varied theoretically on issues such as which aspects of earthly existence may or may not be subject to Fate and the influence of the stars, and whether or not the soul is affected by celestial motions and relationships.

Xenocrates and Epicurus both penned lost works of the same title prior to his Diog. Given the influence of Xenocrates on the Stoa on matters as important as oikeisis, there is no reason to think that all of the issues of fate and freedom discussed by Chrysippus originate with him. Later Stoics such as Boethus, Posidonius and Philopator, dedicated works to fate, a topic that would become a critical issue for all Hellenistic schools of thought. The development of Hellenistic astrology is placed in the context of these theories.

Fate and Necessity Stoic theory of fate involves the law of cause and effect, but unlike Epicurean atomism, it is not a purely mechanistic determinism because at the helm is divine reason. Logos, for the Stoics, was the causal principle of fate or destiny. This principle is not simply external to human beings, for it is disseminated through the cosmos as logos spermatikos seminal reason which is particularly concentrated in humans who are subordinate partners of the gods. Individual logoi are related to the cosmic logos through living in harmony with nature and the universe.

This provided the basis of Stoic ethics, for which there is the goal of eupoia biou or smooth living rather than fighting with the natural and fated order of things. Chrysippus makes a distinction between fate heimarmen and necessity anank in which the former is a totality of antecedent causes to an event, while the latter is the internal nature of a thing, or internal causes.

By its nature, a pot made of clay can be shattered, but the actual events of the shattering of a specific pot are due to the Fate, in general, encompasses the internal causes, though to be fated does not exclude the autonomy of individuals because particular actions are based on internal considerations such as will and character.

Some events are considered to be co-fated by both external circumstances and conscious acts of choice. Diogenianus gives examples of co-fatedness, e. Character or disposition also plays a part in determining virtue and vice. Polemical writers such as Alexander of Aphrodisias characterize the Stoic position as maintaining that virtue and vice are innate. Though morally neutral at birth, a human being is not a tabula rasa, but has potentialities which make him more or less receptive to good and bad influences from the environment.

An individual cannot act contrary to his or her character, which is a combination of innate and external factors, but there is the possibility of acquiring a different character, as a sudden conversion. Since character determines action the ethical responsibility rests with the most immediate causes. An often cited example is that of a cylinder placed on a hill the initial and external cause of being pushed down the hill represents the rational order of fate, while its naturally rollable shape represents will and character of the mind Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae, 7.

Cultivation of character through knowledge and training was thought to result in "harmonious acceptance of events" which are governed by the rational plan of the cosmos , whereas lack of culture results in the errors of pitting oneself against fate Gellius, 7. Stoic-Babylonian Eternal Recurrence Berossus, a Babylonian priest who settled on the island of Cos and the author of Babuloniakos, is often credited for bringing Babylonian astrology to the Greek-speaking world. Because he is thought to have flourished around B. Kidinnu and Soudines, two Babylonian astronomers mentioned by second century C.

Vettius Valens, also contributed to Hellenistic astronomy and astrology. Although many of the technical and theoretical details of pre-Hellenistic Babylonian astrology in Greece are lost in all but a few tablets, the doctrine of apokatastasis or eternal recurrence is attributed to Berossus by Seneca Quaest. One scholar of the history of astronomy P.

Schnabel, Berossus und die babylonischhellenistische Literatur, Leipzig argued that Kidinnu possessed a theory of 'precession of the equinox' prior to Hipparchus. Precession occurs due to a slight rotation of the earth's axis resulting in a cyclical slippage of the vernal point in reference to the stars. See section on Ptolemy for more on precession From this was concluded an eternal recurrence based on the precession of the vernal point through the constellations. Schnabel's theory, however, had been refuted by Neugebauer. Whatever the case may be, it is likely that Babylonian cosmological theories influenced the founding Stoics, particularly Chrysippus.

The early Stoic version of the eternal recurrence is that a great conflagration ekpursis marks a stage in the cycle of the reconstitution of the cosmos apokatastasis. Each age would end in Fire, the purest of elements and the irreducible cosmic substance, and would be followed by a restoration of all things. This fire, for the Stoics, was a In the reconstitution of the world, the fiery element would interact with air to create moisture, which then condenses into earth.

The four elements would then organize in their proper measures to create living beings SVF, 1. By Necessity, the principle cohesive power of the cosmos, the same souls which existed in one cycle would then be reconstituted in the cosmos and would play the same part in the same way, with perhaps an insignificant variation or two. This concept from the early Stoa is sometimes known as the 'eternal recurrence. This is not to be understood as an 'afterlife' of human souls, as one would find in Christianity, for example. God, then restored in his own completion, assesses the lives of the previous cycle and fashions the next great age of the world that will contain an identical sequence of events.

Heraclitus, whom the Stoics claimed as a precursor, possessed an earlier doctrine of conflagration, though it is not to be assumed that his generation and decay of the cosmos was measured by the planetary circuits, for its movement, to him, is a pathway up and down rather than circular Diog. As reported by Philo, the only Stoics to have rejected the eternal recurrence include Boethus of Sidon, Panaetius, and a mature Diogenes of Babylon De aeternitate mundi, Astrological configurations were specified as part of the StoicBabylonian theory of eternal recurrence.

According to Nemesius, The Stoics say that when the planets return to the same celestial sign [smeion], in length and breadth [mkos kai platos], where each was originally when the world was first formed, at the set periods of time they cause conflagration and destruction of existing things. Once again the world returns anew to the same condition as before; and when the stars are moving again in the SVF, 2. Long and Sedley, Hellenistic Philosophers V. The word smeion used by Nemesius could represent any celestial indicator, though the typical word for 'sign of the zodiac' was zidion.

The celestial position of 'length and breath' latitude and longitude is more specifically identified by second century C. A variation of this theory of apokatastasis includes an antapokatastatis, which is an additional destruction by water which occurs when the planets align in the opposing sign, Capricorn.

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Such destruction by a Great Flood during this alignment was also attributed to Berossus by Seneca. Fourth century astrologer turned Christian, Firmicus Maternus, associated apokatastasis with the Thema Mundi or Genesis Cosmos , which is a 'birth chart' for the world consisting of each planet in the 15th degree of its own sign. For the sake of consistency with the Stoic eternal cosmos, Firmicus claimed this chart does not indicate that the world had any original birth in the sense of creation, particularly one that could be conceived of by human reason or empirical observation.

The Great Year contains all possible configurations and events. Because it exceeds the span of human records of observation, there is no way of determining the birth of the world. He claimed that the schema had been invented by the Hermetic astrologers to serve as an instructional tool often employed as allegory Mathesis, 3. A more common Genesis Cosmos mentioned in astrological texts is a configuration of all planets in their own signs and degrees of exaltation hupsoma , special regions that had been established in Babylonian astrology.

The eternal recurrence doctrine in Stoicism entails justification of divination and belief in the predictability of events. The Sun, Moon and planets, as gods, possess the pur technikon and are not destroyed in the ekpursis SVF, 1.

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While their physical substance is destroyed, they maintain an existence as thoughts in the mind of Zeus. Because the gods are indestructible, they maintain memory of events that take place within a Great Year and know everything that will happen in the following cycles SVF, 2. Divination, for Stoicism, is therefore possible, and even a divine gift. For recent news and updates related to the site please see our recent updates page.


Hellenistic astrology

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Here are a few:. The Hellenistic astrologers page contains detailed biographies of each of the major astrologers from the Hellenistic and Roman periods. Here are a few notable entries:. The Hellenistic Astrology Website Promoting the study of the history, philosophy and techniques of ancient astrology.


Welcome to the Hellenistic Astrology Website Hellenistic astrology is a tradition of Greco-Roman astrology that originated in the Mediterranean region sometime around the 1st century BCE, and was practiced until approximately the 7th century. The Purpose of This Website The purpose of this website is to help facilitate the recovery of Hellenistic astrology by providing resources for researchers who would like to take part in the recovery effort, or who would simply like to learn more about this ancient tradition of astrology.

It gives correlations between planets and parts of human body. See eight-folded zodiacal division col. See at the same web site, two horoscopes and some other astrological fragments : Search Astrology in Michigan mss. With ps-Ptolemy's Centiloquium and Haly's comment. Edited with the "De judicandi facultate et animi principatu". See also by M. Riley Anthologies English translation Mark Riley, ca. Vettius Valens fl. More than three copies. See chapter 21 pp. Ignorant of Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos. Numerous editions.

Compilation on the time of life, the climacteric years, and the cycles of the great year. Petersburg, Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences, Firmicus, against Pagan cults. The text can be viewed on Scribd and the file downloaded after subscription.

Manetho's Apotelesmaticorum. Final redaction after See after Maximos Peri Katarche. Manetho Hephaistio of Thebes fl. Several reprints. We have yet to learn why supposed "astrolatry" interested Ptolemy, and Cardano, Kepler or Campanella some fifteen centuries later Translated by David Pingree in his excellent critical edition of Third volume is not yet available. A typical model of ancient "matricial repartitions". Chidambaram Aiyar, 2nd rev. Mantreswara Phala Deepika Transl. Kapoor, New Delhi 13th c.? The book is attributed to Shri Mantreswara. For the content of these treatises, see David Juste notice.

See in the second part : "De Eris intervallis regnorum et gentium", "De era persarum", "De revolutionibus annorum", "De aequatione duodecim domorum coeli" At the end f. Spanish translation by Demetrio Santos : "Sobre las natividades" Barcelona, See David Juste notice. CMU Introd. Spanish translation by Demetrio Santos Barcelona, Richard Roussat, Paris, Denis Janot, Xth century Hebrew popular manual astrology, numerology and physiognomony.

Incomplete copy with manuscript notes. Translated by John of Seville. The portraits for Mercury and Moon complexions are significative of the Jewish inversion of the original Babylonian significations. A person who is born under the moon will be a man who suffers illness, building up and tearing down Latin manuscript translation. The Tables have been written around On Indian astrology and related subjects, see chap.

Spanish translation by Demetrio Santos Madrid, Miami University, Internet version of the doctoral thesis of Lester Ness. Hasan b. Tzvi Langermann. For an English translation of this text, see Paola Zambelli : "The Speculum astronomiae and its enigma: astrology, theology, and science in Albertus Magnus and his contemporaries" Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic, BSB Clm , [S. Prag , Carmody , p. Incipit : "Dex [Dieu] qui fist toutes creatures", explicit : "et jasoit que li Toreaus fust alez en meson estrange en One of the most beautifully illustrated incunabula.

Francis Carmody has edited in the three first books of a French manuscript translation before : "Li compilacions de le science des estoilles". Translated by Robert Hand books in , and by Benjamin Dykes books in The choice aphorisms from Cardanus are not included in this copy. A facsimile of the edition of , has been published in Washington American Federation of Astrologers, then in London Regulus, with different pagination. Word copy of the translation in A history of astronomy and astrology, and a rather precious catalogue. Inescapable reference book of which there is a light version.

First catalogue entirely dedicated to astrological works : from Abdylaziz Alcabitius to ps. Google PNG Gardner. Manuel bibliographique des sciences psychiques ou occultes Paris, Lucien Dorbon, , vols Planetary, Lunar and Solar Positions B. New and Full Moons B. Google PNG Welther. These collections although containing many references other than astrological , might be useful : they include 15th century incunabula and 16th century books in all fields published in outstanding printing centers Lyons and Paris, Venice, Rome and Padua , and others.

Cantamessa's bibliography, the most complete on astrology, has been greatly improved and is now online : Bibliografia di opere stampate tra il e il di astrologia e che di astrologia trattano , refs. Cantamessa Bibliografia. Thorndike's doctoral thesis. A history of magic and experimental science New York, Columbia University Press, , 8 vols.

Although it includes other material, this colossal study remains the best one ever concerning the history of astrology. On astrology, see mainly vol. Google PNG Wedel.

The Hellenistic Astrology Course

Origine de tous les cultes, ou Religion universelle [Paris, , 3 vols. Famous theory : the origins of cults and religions are celestial. Gallica PDF Dupuis. Gallica PDF Dupuis Compendium on the origins of star names. Google PNG Knappich. Google PNG Gleadow. See my concise review in French : here.

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Google PNG Tester. Google PNG James. Gallica PDF Baudouin. On Lunar observatories in Megalithic Europe. Google PDF Thom A synthesis of ancient Egyptian astronomical knowledge. Google PNG Clagett. Gallica PDF Oppert. Akkadian Genesis. The famous Babylonian astronomical compilation, and the earliest surviving catalogue of constellations. Only 30 pages of Van der Waerden's master work on ancient astrology despite of the title are available on Google Books. Google PNG Bartel. Google PNG Erica. Mesopotamian Astrology. Google PNG Francesca1. Google PNG Pingree Google PNG Swerdlow.

University of Toronto, Important doctoral thesis on the Parapegmata, "texts and instruments used for tracking cyclical phenomena" in Babylon, Greece, Egypt, Rome, etc , essentially for astrometeorological purposes.